فهرست مقالات مرتبط با مطبوعات وروزنامه نگاري

1-American Reporting of School Violence and `People Like Us': A Comparison of Newspaper Coverage of the Columbine and Red Lake School Shootings
Patricia Leavy
Stonehill College, Massachusetts, USA, pleavy@stonehill.edu , pleavy7@aol.com
Kathryn P. Maloney
Braintree Public Schools, Massachusetts, USA, kathrynmaloney@gmail.com
Critical Sociology
March 2009, Volume 35, No. 2

The 1999 shootings at Columbine High School received saturation coverage by the American media. How did newspaper reporting of the 2005 Red Lake Indian Reservation School shootings, the largest school killing since Columbine, compare with the press's representations of Columbine? In this article we perform a qualitative content analysis of three newspapers (The New York Times as the national paper of record, and local papers in the communities in which the events occurred) over a two-week period following each event. We found that the reporting of Columbine and Red Lake differed in terms of quantity, content, and form. Columbine was immediately marked with social significance and became a national story while Red Lake received significantly less coverage, mostly local. Red Lake reporting was explicitly raced and classed while the prominent role of race and gender in the Columbine killings was largely ignored by local and national media.
Key Words: collective memory • Columbine shootings • journalism • Red Lake shootings • school violence

فهرست مقالات مرتبط با راديو و تلويزيون

1- Private pleasures
Watching videos in post-Soviet Cuba

Anna Cristina Pertierra
University of Queensland, Australia, a.pertierra@uq.edu.au
International Journal of Cultural Studies
March 2009, Volume 12, No. 2

This article traces circuits of distribution and consumption of videocassette recorders (VCRs) and videocassettes in Cuba, which until April 2008 were not available for retail sale, and were usually sourced through black market or informal means. Based upon ethnographic research conducted in 2003/4 with VCR owners and an operator of an informal videocassette rental business, the article argues that understanding the role of video in contemporary Cuba requires a consideration of both the political and economic implications of being a video consumer and the material properties of VCRs as consumer goods. In the context of post-Soviet Cuba, VCRs and videocassettes exemplify the importance of informal practices and economies, and call attention to increased tensions surrounding consumption that have developed since the economic crisis of the 1990s.
Key Words: Caribbean • Cuba • domestic space • informal economy • media consumption • VCR • videocassette

2- Reminiscing Television
Media Ethnography, Oral History and Finnish Third Generation Media History

Jukka Kortti
Economic and Social History at the University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopiston ylioppilaskunta - HYY), Leppäsuonkatu 11, 00100 Helsinki, Finland, jukka.kortti@helsinki.fi
Tuuli Anna Mähönen
Department of Social Psychology at the University of Helsinki
European Journal of Communication
March 2009, Volume 24, No. 1

This article presents and discusses the methodological issues arising in a project on the advent, diffusion and integration of Finnish television over its 50-year history. The study uses oral history, in the form of written reminiscences, to explore the changing role of television in the life of Finns. This social historical study combines methods of ethnographic television audience studies and oral history studies. This kind of approach is rarely used in media ethnography. It raises questions around themes such as the importance of context, the nature of narratives and coding methods. This article also summarizes how the project's data and methodology have served to produce a third generation media history study.
Key Words: audience studies • media ethnography • media history • methodology • television history

3- New directions in hybrid popular television  : a reassessment of television mock-documentary

Jelle Mast

Media, Culture & Society

March 2009, Volume 31, No. 2


In the past few years the fake documentary or so-called ‘mock-documentary’, once
an underground (film) genre, has gradually made its way into mainstream television
production with notable examples like the highly acclaimed BBC-series The Office
and Comedy Central’s Reno 911. These fictions that look and sound like documentaries
have taken on a great appeal as ‘reality television’ established itself as a staple
aspect of contemporary television and popular culture. Elaborating
‘mockumentary theory’ to the domain of television, this article argues against predominant
notions of mock-documentary as parody, commentary or subversion,
based on two Flemish cases of the form: Kaat & Co and Het Geslacht De Pauw (or
The De Pauw Family). These particular instances of mock-documentary shed new
light on the ‘border genre’ and suggest that broader tendencies are at work in this
kind of television programming. Through a comprehensive study of the Flemish
cases, which combines a (con)textual analysis and in-depth interviews with individuals
who were involved in the production of the television shows, the article
reconsiders the theorizing of mock-documentary, its aesthetic and cultural meaning,
and in so doing attempts to clarify that muddy area that lies between straightforward
fictional and factual television output.
Keywords: celebrity, documentary, docu-soap, hybridization, mock-documentary,
reality television, television genres

4- The design and scripting of `unscripted' talk: liveness
Versus control in a TV broadcast interview

Åsa Kroon Lundell

Media, Culture & Society

March 2009, Volume 31, No. 2


By combining ethnographic methods with textual analysis, this article sets out to
answer the question of how a scripted event on live television is infused with a sense
of ‘liveness’ in order to balance the requirements of control and spontaneity in a
broadcast interview. The management of this seemingly paradoxical desire is, in this
analysis, linked to the ways in which professionals work at maintaining the identity
of public service while competing in a commercial media market. In relation to this
general inquiry, the script’s status in the production of a broadcast interview will also
be analysed, an area which is something of a blind spot in media research. In doing
so, the conventional division between scripted and unscripted broadcast talk is called
into question.

Keywords: broadcast, interview, liveness, scripted talk, television, unscripted talk

5- Popularizing the classics: radio’s role in the American music
Appreciation movement, 1922–34

Shawn Vancour

Media, Culture & Society

March 2009, Volume 31, No. 2


Analyzing radio’s role in a broader early 20th-century American music appreciation
Movement, this article examines a push for inclusion of classical content on broadcast
Schedules of the 1920s and 1930s and documents critical objections to programming
Strategies pursued by commercial broadcasters during this period. While
Music appreciation advocates embraced radio’s potential for cultural uplift, they also
Criticized broadcasters for giving the classics inadequate representation, violating the
Structural integrity of these works, and offering listeners explanations of this music
That encouraged inappropriate modes of aesthetic engagement. If radio promised to
Spread classical music throughout all quarters of American society, critics during this
period also expressed concerns that strategies used to popularize these works would
degrade them and subvert the taste culture whose dominance they might otherwise
assert. For classical music lovers, radio thus presented the biggest boon and greatest
threat to music appreciation that the nation had ever known.

Keywords: aesthetics, broadcasting, classical music, music appreciation, popular culture,
programming, radio, taste

فهرست مقالات مرتبط با رسانه هاي جمعي

1- Walking in Fear
An Autoethnographic Account of Media Framing of Inner-City Crime

Damion Waymer
Virginia Tech
 Journal of Communication Inquiry

April 2009, Volume 33, No. 2


For decades, scholars have studied the powerful effects of media. More specifically, researchers have found that media can be considered agents of socialization—shaping and influencing people's identities and identity formations. Because media is often our only "gateway" to witness what occurs outside of our view, it becomes the lens in which we use to view our world—especially when it comes to the framing of crime in the inner city. In this essay, I use the events surrounding Cincinnati, Ohio, and its race riots of 2001 as the case for analysis. Specifically, I use an autoethnographic account to detail the impact that news coverage on crime in Cincinnati can have on minority individuals who do not reside in the inner city. Finally, this essay further establishes the role—intentional or unintentional—that reporters and journalists play in community and public relations issues.
Key Words: media • framing • public relations • crime • autoethnography • race

2- Introduction
Thinking about Caribbean Media Worlds

Anna Cristina Pertierra
University of Queensland, Australia, a.pertierra@uq.edu.au 
Heather A. Horst
University of California Humanities Research Institute, USA, hhorst@uci.edu

International Journal of Cultural Studies
March 2009, Volume 12, No. 2

This special issue brings together cultural studies of media with current themes in Caribbean studies and anthropology. The papers were part of an interdisciplinary conference panel focused upon Caribbean Media Worlds. At the outset, we wanted to demonstrate that there are several specific reasons why the Caribbean makes a particularly interesting case study for examining the cultural practices, relationships, micro-political encounters and identities that surround the distribution and use of media technologies. The collection here examines media in interaction with the world of which it is part — in this case, that world is imagined as `the Caribbean'. The main goal of this introduction is to contextualize the studies by presenting key ideas within Caribbean research as a backdrop against which the conceptual and analytic frameworks which emerge in the contributors' articles can be better understood.
Key Words: Caribbean • ethnography • global • local • identity • media

3- Voices from home and abroad New York City's Indo-Caribbean media
Leela Tanikella
University of Texas at Austin, USA, LTanikella@mail.utexas.edu
International Journal of Cultural Studies
March 2009, Volume 12, No. 2


This article examines how New York City's Indo-Caribbean media represents and constructs diasporic and transnational identities. Analyzing weekly newspapers, radio programs and websites, it argues that as media producers negotiate content and programing with their audiences they produce a varied and multiple `Indo-Caribbean voice'. Indo-Caribbean communities are linking up with home and with India in specific geographic locations in New York City and in locally produced mediated forums. In this article, these connections are mapped locally and transnationally to understand the role of other racialized communities in the development of an Indo-Caribbean presence in the public sphere. The media examined here represent Indo-Caribbean communities as they negotiate belonging in the US that is mediated through relationships with their home countries as well as the Indian migrant community from South Asia.
Key Words: Indo-Caribbean communities • migrant media • racial identities • South Asian diaspora • transnationalism

4- Media System, Public Knowledge and Democracy
A Comparative Study
James Curran
Communications at Goldsmiths, University of London, Media and Communications Department, New Cross, London SE14 6NW, UK, j.curran@gold.ac.uk 
Shanto Iyengar
Communications and of Political Science, Department of Communication, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, siyengar @stanford.edu
Anker Brink Lund
CBS International Centre for Business and Politics, Copenhagen Business School, Steen Blichers Vej 22, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark, abl.cbp@cbs.dk 
Inka Salovaara-Moring
Academy of Finland, University of Helsinki, Communication, University of Tallinn, Estonia, inka.moring@helsinki.fi 
European Journal of Communication
March 2009, Volume 24, No. 1

This article addresses the implications of the movement towards entertainment-centred, market-driven media by comparing what is reported and what the public knows in four countries with different media systems. The different systems are public service (Denmark and Finland), a `dual' model (UK) and the market model (US). The comparison shows that public service television devotes more attention to public affairs and international news, and fosters greater knowledge in these areas, than the market model. Public service television also gives greater prominence to news, encourages higher levels of news consumption and contributes to a smaller within-nation knowledge gap between the advantaged and disadvantaged. But wider processes in society take precedence over the organization of the media in determining how much people know about public life.
Key Words: democracy • marketization • media system • news reporting • public knowledge

5- Information and Communication Technologies and Society
A Contribution to the Critique of the Political Economy of the Internet

Christian Fuchs
ICT&S Centre for Advanced Studies and Research in Information and Communication Technologies and Society, University of Salzburg, Sigmund Haffner Gasse 18, 5020 Salzburg, Austria, christian.fuchs@sbg.ac.at
European Journal of Communication
March 2009, Volume 24, No. 1


This article argues for the need of Critical Internet Theory. It outlines how such a theory operates by the example of the role of gifts and commodities in the Internet economy. It is argued that after the crisis of the `New Economy', the emergence of what is termed `Web 2.0' signifies the increasing importance of the Internet gift commodity strategy. This strategy commodifies the users who produce content and communications online on free access platforms so that advertisement rates are driven up, and functions as a legitimizing ideology. In this context, the notion of the Internet prosumer commodity is introduced.
Key Words: capital accumulation • Critical Internet Theory • critique of the political economy of the Internet • social software • Web 2.0

فهرست مقالات مرتبط با تحليل محتوا

1- `Let's Talk about Europe'
Why Europeanization Shows a Different Face in Different Newspapers

Michael Brüggemann
School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen, Germany, m.brueggemann@jacobs-university.de 
Katharina Kleinen-von Königslöw
School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen
European Journal of Communication
March 2009, Volume 24, No. 1

This article contributes to the ongoing quest for a European public sphere understood as a structural transformation of national public debates. This process of Europeanization of national public spheres has a vertical and a horizontal dimension: an increased focus on the EU as well as more attention to other European countries. A content analysis of quality newspapers in five EU member states covering a period of 20 years reveals common trends across different countries but no convergence over time. Four different patterns of Europeanization can be identified: comprehensive Europeanization, segmented Europeanization, Europeanization aloof from the EU and a parochial public sphere. This article pushes research in this area ahead by identifying and testing factors that explain these differences in newspaper coverage. In-depth case analysis as well as regression analysis show that the editorial mission of a newspaper and the size of the member state it is situated in have a significant effect on patterns of Europeanization. Contrary to common expectations, the number of correspondents in Brussels and the degree of popular identification with Europe did not significantly affect patterns of Europeanization.
Key Words: content analysis • Europeanization • European public sphere • journalism • newspapers

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